心理学高级讲师 博士丹尼尔·法拉利 让新黄金城集团了解了情人节的进化起源

 对情人节的进化理解 

A black silhouette of two h和s forming a heart shape in front of a beautiful sunset backdrop.

Any trip to the supermarket or watching TV ads in the last week or so should have left you with one clear 和 resounding message – Valentine’s Day is just around the corner. 如果你能看透人心, 丘比特画像, 泰迪熊, 巧克力, 等等, 你会感激这个机会让新黄金城集团的真爱, 或者新黄金城集团现在的爱人, or our hoped-to-be loves how we feel about them is not just big business, 它是新黄金城集团社会和生活的重要组成部分.

为什么会这样呢? 为什么一年中的这一天这么特别? Well I’m going to take an evolutionary approach to explain this phenomenon in this blog, 并强调为什么它是基于新黄金城集团本性中更深层的方面.

To start with, a good question to ask is do other species have something similar? 现在, I don’t mean do they have a special day where they send each other cards 和 crack open a nice bottle of wine, 但新黄金城集团可以看看其他动物来帮助理解情人节吗? 这里有两个例子:

一只凉亭鸟正坐在它为吸引配偶而造的巢里

Bowerbirds, found in Papua New Guinea 和 Australia, are a great place to start. 雄性园丁鸟用树枝建造巨大而奇妙的房子, 叶子, berries 和 any other materials they can find (including plastic straws from nearby fast food restaurants), very carefully making sure that they are beautifully decorated 和 impressive. 然后他们就坐在旁边,等着. Female bowerbirds will then pass by each house 和 inspecting each one, 如果他们喜欢他们所看到的, 它们将与建造它的鸟交配. 

孔雀的特写

 

Peacocks have very recognisable 和 fabulously large 和 colourful tails that are in fact very difficult 和 dangerous to own. 这是因为它们需要大量的能量来生长和维持, 由于它们的体型和重量,它们很难飞行和移动, 这意味着主人更有可能被捕食者抓住. 如果这对它们的生存不利,那它们为什么还要生呢? 答案是,它有利于繁殖, 因为雌孔雀会被尾巴更大的孔雀吸引, simply because it shows off that the owner of that tail has managed to survive despite the large tail, 这就意味着它们是高质量的标本!

这两个例子都涉及到所谓的昂贵信号, 在自然界中,哪些信号的产生成本很高, 这样就可以显示出信号发送者是如何支付费用的. So, the bowerbird is paying a big cost in terms of effort 和 time 和 energy to build their magnificent houses, 和 the peacocks is paying a big cost in terms of physically growing their elaborate tails. 回到人类和他们的情人节, we can see other costly signals being spent such as expensive engagement rings (with a diamond that should, 作为一个粗略的指南, 花费一个月的工资!)、奢华的晚餐或浪漫的旅行. 这些都显示了它的成本, 在金钱方面, 为了给重要的人留下深刻印象,新黄金城集团愿意付钱, 和一些珠宝, restaurants 和 hotel owners know only too well 和 are happy to help with!

红手捧花的男人

但代价并不总是金钱, so gifts that are difficult to produce but inexpensive financially (such as writing a romantic poem or song) can also show a large cost being spent. 这也是相对的, so what might not be a cost for some people will be for others 和 work just as well, so a simple card 和 modest box of 巧克力 may be costly to some people 和 as a result will have the same desired effect. 记住,在情人节,心意才是最重要的!

So, Valentine’s Day traditions have clear similarities with mating in other animal species, 这表明它们在新黄金城集团的心理中根深蒂固. But one unavoidable fact about mating displays in the animal kingdom that needs to be noted is that in virtually every single case it is the male of the species who is doing the displaying, 而进行选择的是雌性. 为什么会这样,人类也是这样吗?

To answer that first question, we need to think about looking after our offspring. 在哺乳动物, 母亲在照顾孩子上投入更多, as they not only grow them over a long period time 和 give birth to them, 它们出生后也会提供大量的照顾, 在它们小的时候,所有的食物都以牛奶的形式存在. As a result of the fact that females invest far more in being a parent than males do, they need to make sure that this investment is wisely placed on good quality offspring. This is why females are overwhelmingly the ‘choosier’ sex in nature (as Charles Darwin realised) as they have more to lose than males. Males on the other h和 invest much less (和 in some species hardly anything at all), 所以不需要挑剔, 他们只需要确保自己被选中. This is why it is the male Bowers who build big houses 和 peacocks who grow long tails, 因为它们需要吸引挑剔的雌性.

 

在树林里,一名男子亲吻一名红衣女子的手

很明显,人类也有类似的情况, as there is also a difference in the amount of investment in children from mothers 和 fathers. 这反映在情人节的行为上, 因为买订婚戒指的大多是男人, 为昂贵的晚餐买单, 浪漫的旅行, 写浪漫的歌曲和诗歌, 通过昂贵的炫耀来吸引女性.

但是,并不总是. 女性也会为了给别人留下深刻印象而付出代价, 男性在寻找浪漫伴侣时当然会很挑剔. 这是否表明新黄金城集团已经克服了新黄金城集团的生物起源? 好吧,其实不是. 在养育子女方面,人类是一个奇怪的物种, as fathers invest a lot more in our species than others due to the fact that human babies require a lot (A LOT!)的照顾和支持,并由父母双方提供. This means men too need to be choosy when it comes to deciding where to put this investment, 和 therefore gifts 和 romantic gestures can work just as well for men as it can women.

整体, I think that looking at other species 和 evolutionary explanations around mating behaviour can really help us underst和 Valentine’s Day, but as with all cases when it comes to human nature we also need to look at what makes us unique. And that’s without even starting to look at how years of cultural influences 和 traditions have further shaped it. 无论如何,享受它! 

博士丹尼尔·法拉利  是高级讲师吗 心理学学士学位 包括进化和人类行为模块. Daniel's main interests are main interests are in the empirical 和 theoretical application of evolutionary theory to explain human behaviour 和 psychological processes.

All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 和 do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the 新黄金城集团 or any of its partners.